HCA

Catchwords: Constitutional law (Cth) – Powers of Commonwealth Parliament – Power to make laws with respect to naturalisation and aliens – Meaning of "aliens" – Where plaintiffs foreign citizens, born outside Australia, who did not acquire Australian citizenship – Where plaintiffs biological descendants of indigenous peoples – Where plaintiffs' visas cancelled under s 501(3A) of Migration Act 1958 (Cth) – Whether statutory citizenship and constitutional alienage co‑terminous – Whether an Aboriginal Australian (defined according to tripartite test in Mabo v Queensland [No 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1) can be "alien" within meaning of s 51(xix) of Constitution – Whether s 51(xix) supports application of ss 14, 189 and 198 of Migration Act to plaintiffs – Whether plaintiffs satisfy tripartite test. Words and phrases – "Aboriginal Australian", "alienage", "aliens", "allegiance", "body politic", "citizen", "connection to country", "essential meaning", "foreign citizen", "indicia of alienage", "nationality", "non‑alien", "non-alienage", "non-citizen", "obligation of protection", "political community", "polity", "sovereignty", "spiritual connection", "subject", "territory", "traditional laws and customs", "tripartite test", "unlawful non-citizen". ...

Catchwords: Evidence – Admissibility – Evidence obtained improperly or in contravention of Australian law – Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), s 138 – Where appellants jointly charged on indictment with acts of serious animal cruelty – Where prosecution proposes to tender video-recordings obtained in contravention of Australian law – Where prosecution proposes to tender search warrant evidence and alleged admissions obtained in consequence of contravention of Australian law – Whether difficulty of lawfully obtaining evidence weighs in favour of admission – Whether weighing of competing public interests under s 138 different for evidence obtained in contravention of law as compared to evidence obtained in consequence of contravention of law – Whether each item of evidence admissible. Words and phrases – "balancing test", "Bunning v Cross discretion", "causal link", "competing public interests", "deliberate contravention of the law", "desirability of admitting evidence", "difficulty of lawfully obtaining evidence", "ease of compliance", "evidence that was obtained improperly or in contravention of an Australian law", "false statement", "illegality", "improperly or illegally obtained", "impropriety", "in consequence of", "misconduct", "probative value", "public interest", "undesirability of admitting evidence", "vigilantism", "way in which the evidence was obtained". ...

Catchwords: Customs and excise – Customs tariff – Tariff classification – Where no duty owed if goods classifiable as medicaments under heading 3004 of Sch 3 to Customs Tariff Act 1995 (Cth) – Where Administrative Appeals Tribunal found vitamin preparations and garcinia preparations classifiable under heading 3004 – Where Comptroller-General of Customs contended vitamin preparations and garcinia preparations classifiable under heading 1704 ("sugar confectionery") or heading 2106 ("food preparations") so that duty owed – Whether vitamin preparations and garcinia preparations excluded from heading 3004 by Note 1(a) to Ch 30 of Sch 3 to Customs Tariff Act – Whether Administrative Appeals Tribunal erred in classifying vitamin preparations and garcinia preparations under heading 3004. Words and phrases – "duties of customs", "error of law", "essential character", "food preparations", "food supplements", "foods", "French language", "Harmonized System", "Harmonized System Convention", "medicament", "most akin", "ordinary meaning", "products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses", "tariff classification", "Vienna Convention", "vitamin". ...

Catchwords: Bankruptcy – Bankrupt estate – Where "the property of the bankrupt" vested in trustee in bankruptcy pursuant to s 58 of Bankruptcy Act 1966 (Cth) – Where bankrupt held estate in land under Torrens system on trust – Whether property held by bankrupt on trust capable of vesting in trustee in bankruptcy – Whether bankrupt had a valid beneficial interest – Whether estate vested in trustee in bankruptcy in equity. Real property – Torrens system – Caveats – Where trustee in bankruptcy lodged caveat claiming "Legal Interest pursuant to the Bankruptcy Act 1966" and refused or failed to withdraw caveat after request – Whether caveator liable to pay compensation under s 74P(1) of Real Property Act 1900 (NSW) for lodging and maintaining caveat "without reasonable cause" – Whether existence of caveatable interest or honest belief on reasonable grounds in such interest sufficient for "reasonable cause" – Whether claimant established that caveator had neither caveatable interest in property nor honest belief on reasonable grounds in having such interest – Whether possibility of trust being set aside under s 120 or s 121 of Bankruptcy Act conferred caveatable interest – Whether caveat adequately described equitable estate in fee simple – Whether deficiency in statement of interest demonstrated absence of "reasonable cause". Trusts – Trustees – Right of indemnity – Where trustee incurred significant expenses in his capacity as trustee ordinarily entitling him to be indemnified out of trust property – Where trustee asserted "mutually beneficial arrangement" with "the trust" – Whether asserted arrangement prejudiced trustee's right of indemnity wholly or in part – Whether value of benefits to trustee under asserted arrangement equal to or exceeded total of trust expenses incurred. Words and phrases – "beneficial interest", "caveatable interest", "caveat against dealings", "circuity of action", "contingent beneficial interest", "determination of non-dispositive issues in appeals", "honest belief on reasonable grounds", "judicial economy", "most remote possibility of interest", "property held by the bankrupt in trust for another person", "right of indemnity", "subject to the equities", "the property divisible among the bankrupt's creditors", "the property of the bankrupt", "without reasonable cause". ...

Catchwords: Criminal practice – Trial – Directions to jury – Liberato v The Queen (1985) 159 CLR 507 ("Liberato") – Where appellant convicted by jury of rape – Where appellant did not give sworn evidence at trial – Where appellant made exculpatory statements in recorded police interview – Where record of interview admitted into evidence – Where appellant did not seek Liberato direction at trial – Where trial judge did not give Liberato direction – Whether Liberato direction required where accused does not give sworn evidence – Whether Liberato direction required where record of interview containing exculpatory statements admitted into evidence. Words and phrases – "beyond reasonable doubt", "choice between witnesses", "conflicting version of events", "criminal standard", "evidence on oath", "exculpatory answers", "interview with the police", "jury directions", "Liberato direction", "onus and standard of proof", "out-of-court statement", "recorded interview", "summing-up as a whole", "sworn evidence", "who do you believe", "word-on-word". ...

Catchwords: Immigration – Refugees ­– Application for protection visa ­– Where Pt 7AA of Migration Act 1958 (Cth) requires Immigration Assessment Authority ("IAA") to review certain decisions to refuse applications for protection visas – Where s 473CB(1)(a), (b) and (d) requires Secretary of Department to give certain material to IAA to conduct review ­­– Where s 473CB(1)(c) requires Secretary to give to IAA any other material Secretary considers relevant to review – Where s 473DB requires IAA to review decision by considering material given by Secretary – Where Secretary gave material to IAA pursuant to s 473CB(1)(c) ­– Where material irrelevant to task of IAA – Where material prejudicial to applicant ­– Where applicant unaware of material ­– Whether jurisdictional error by Secretary –­ Whether jurisdictional error invalidated decision of IAA – Whether apprehended bias. Administrative law – Judicial review –­­ Procedural fairness – Where s 473FA requires IAA to operate free of bias – Whether apprehended bias. Words and phrases – "apprehended bias", "bias", "fair-minded lay observer", "fast track reviewable decision", "Immigration Assessment Authority", "impartial", "irrelevant", "irrelevant and prejudicial material", "jurisdictional error", "material", "materiality", "prejudicial", "prejudicial but inadmissible", "procedural fairness", "professional decision maker", "reasonable apprehension of bias", "relevant", "relevant to the review", "required to consider", "review material", "rule against bias", "subconscious bias". ...

Catchwords: Immigration – Representative proceedings – Where plaintiff brought representative proceeding in High Court for damages for false imprisonment – Where claimed that Group Members purportedly detained under ss 189 and 196 of Migration Act 1958 (Cth) – Where claimed that detention for purpose of receiving, investigating or determining application for visa, or determining whether to permit valid application for visa to be made, or of removing relevant Group Member from Australia to regional processing country – Where claimed that detention lawful only for period during which purposes pursued and carried into effect as soon as reasonably practicable and capable of fulfilment – Where claimed that detention unlawful because purposes not carried into effect as soon as reasonably practicable or because detention continued at times during which purposes not capable of fulfilment – Where plaintiff applied for order remitting proceeding to Federal Court of Australia pursuant to s 44(2A) of Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) – Where s 476B(1) of Migration Act provided that High Court must not remit matter "that relates to a migration decision" to court other than Federal Circuit Court – Where s 468B(1) and (2) provided that representative proceeding not permitted where proceeding would "raise an issue in connection with visas ...

Catchwords: Practice and procedure – Representative action – Orders – Where s 33ZF of Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 (Cth) and s 183 of Civil Procedure Act 2005 (NSW) provide that in representative proceeding court may make any order court thinks appropriate or necessary to ensure justice is done in proceeding – Where representative proceedings commenced in Federal Court of Australia and Supreme Court of New South Wales – Where proceedings funded by litigation funders – Where litigation funders entered into litigation funding agreements with small number of group members – Where representative parties in each proceeding applied for common fund order – Whether s 33ZF of Federal Court of Australia Act and s 183 of Civil Procedure Act empower Federal Court of Australia and Supreme Court of New South Wales to make common fund order. Words and phrases – "access to justice", "appropriate or necessary to ensure that justice is done in the proceeding", "award of damages", "book building", "common fund", "common fund order", "distribution of moneys recovered", "equitable sharing of costs", "fair and reasonable to all group members", "free riding", "funding commission", "funding equalisation order", "interests of justice", "litigation funding", "representative proceeding", "risk", "unfunded group members". ...

Catchwords: Police – Arrest without warrant – Where s 99(1) of Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW) provides that police officer may, without warrant, arrest person if police officer suspects on reasonable grounds that person is committing or has committed offence and police officer is satisfied that arrest is reasonably necessary for one or more specified reasons – Where s 99(3) provides that police officer who arrests person under s 99 must, as soon as is reasonably practicable, take person before authorised officer to be dealt with according to law – Where police officer had not formed intention to charge arrested person with offence at time of arrest – Where police officer had not formed intention to bring arrested person before authorised officer to be dealt with according to law at time of arrest – Where arrested person brought claim for damages for wrongful arrest and false imprisonment – Whether arrest unlawful. Words and phrases – "answer a charge for an offence", "arrest", "arrest without a warrant", "as soon as is reasonably practicable", "authorised officer", "dealt with according to law", "false imprisonment", "improper purpose", "intention to charge", "investigation period", "police officer", "power to arrest", "purpose of arrest", "suspects on reasonable grounds". ...

Catchwords: Income tax (Cth) – Appeal against objection decision – Where Commissioner of Taxation ("Commissioner") issued amended assessments of taxable income following commencement of audit – Where taxpayer objected to amended assessments – Where objection decision made in respect of taxpayer's objection ("Objection Decision") – Where further amended assessments made consequent upon Objection Decision – Where taxpayer appealed against Objection Decision under Pt IVC of Taxation Administration Act 1953 (Cth) ("Act") but not against further amended assessments – Where Commissioner conceded certain amounts incorrectly assessed as income ("Conceded Amounts") – Whether appeal under Pt IVC of Act was against Objection Decision or against further amendment assessments – Whether Commissioner's assessment excessive to extent of Conceded Amounts. Administrative law – Judicial review – Jurisdictional error – Where primary judge determined appeal against Objection Decision under Pt IVC of Act – Where Full Court of Federal Court of Australia determined appeal against decision of primary judge – Where taxpayer sought writs of certiorari in respect of decisions of primary judge and Full Court – Whether primary judge and Full Court each misconstrued jurisdiction – Whether primary judge and Full Court committed jurisdictional error – Whether taxpayer's application for judicial review, after expiration of time in which to seek special leave to appeal, sufficient basis to dismiss application. Words and phrases – "amended assessment", "disallowance of objection", "excessive assessment", "falsa demonstratio non nocet", "grounds of objection", "jurisdictional error", "misconceive jurisdiction", "non-jurisdictional error", "objection decision", "objection to assessment", "refusal of relief", "taxable income", "taxation decision", "taxation objection", "taxpayer's burden of proof", "wide survey and exact scrutiny". ...

Catchwords: Criminal practice – Appeal – Crown appeal against sentence – Procedural fairness – Where appellant provided assistance to law enforcement authorities – Where court required by statute to take assistance into account in sentencing – Where evidence of assistance kept confidential from appellant and appellant's legal representatives in sentencing proceedings – Where evidence contained highly sensitive criminal intelligence – Where appellant sought access to confidential evidence on appeal – Where Court of Criminal Appeal denied appellant access to confidential evidence on basis of public interest immunity – Where Court of Criminal Appeal exercised discretion under s 5D(1) of Criminal Appeal Act 1912 (NSW) to re-sentence – Whether appellant denied procedural fairness – Whether Court of Criminal Appeal had power to deny appellant access to the confidential evidence – Whether Court of Criminal Appeal should have declined to exercise discretion to re‑sentence. Words and phrases – "access to evidence", "assistance to law enforcement authorities", "confidential information", "Crown appeal against sentence", "discount in sentence", "evidence of assistance", "mitigating factor", "non‑disclosure", "open justice", "procedural fairness", "public interest immunity", "residual discretion", "tailored order". ...

Catchwords: Criminal practice – Forfeiture of tainted property – Where appellants remitted money to Australia using money remitters or money changers in foreign country – Where large number of cash deposits, usually each less than $10,000, made into appellants' bank accounts in Australia in process known as "cuckoo smurfing" – Where deposits proceeds or instrument of structuring offence under s 142 of Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 (Cth) – Where Commissioner of Australian Federal Police successfully applied for restraining orders over appellants' bank accounts under s 19 of Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (Cth) ("POCA") – Where appellants applied under ss 29 and 31 of POCA to have property excluded from orders – Whether property "ceased" to be proceeds or instrument of offence under s 330(4) of POCA – Whether property acquired by third party for sufficient consideration without third party knowing, and in circumstances that would not arouse reasonable suspicion, that property proceeds or instrument under s 330(4)(a) of POCA. Words and phrases – "acquisition of property", "cuckoo smurfing", "for sufficient consideration", "in circumstances that would not have aroused a reasonable suspicion", "instrument of a serious offence", "money changers", "money laundering", "money remitters", "proceeds of an indictable offence", "proceeds of crime", "reporting threshold", "structuring offence", "third party", "volunteer". ...

Catchwords: Criminal law – Murder – Appeal – Appeal against conviction – Where appellant convicted by jury ­– Where Crown case based entirely on circumstantial evidence – Where circumstantial evidence related to opportunity and motive and miscellany of other inculpatory matters – Where evidence of opportunity and motive extremely weak – Where evidence connecting accused to alleged murder weapon based on glaringly improbable identification evidence – Whether verdict unreasonable or cannot be supported having regard to evidence. Words and phrases – "basis for an inference", "circumstantial case", "contamination of recollection", "credibility and reliability", "glaringly improbable", "identification evidence", "identification of object", "motive", "murder weapon", "opportunity", "unreasonable verdict". ...

Catchwords: Constitutional law (Cth) – Judicial power – Constitution – Ch III – State Parliament – Institutional integrity of State courts – Where s 5(1) of Crimes (Serious Crime Prevention Orders) Act 2016 (NSW) provides that State court may make order if satisfied that specified person has been convicted of serious criminal offence or involved in serious crime related activity and satisfied that reasonable grounds to believe that making of order would protect public by preventing, restricting or disrupting involvement by that person in serious crime related activities – Where s 6(1) of Act provides that order against that specified person may contain such prohibitions, restrictions, requirements and other provisions as court considers appropriate for purpose of protecting public by preventing, restricting or disrupting involvement by that person in serious crime related activities – Where proceedings under Act are civil proceedings – Whether making order exercise of judicial power – Whether powers conferred by Act incompatible with State court's role as repository of federal judicial power – Whether powers conferred by Act substantially impair institutional integrity of State court. Words and phrases – "appropriate", "balancing", "facilitates or is likely to facilitate", "future risk", "institutional integrity", "judicial power", "Kable v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW)", "open-textured", "preventing, restricting or disrupting", "preventive orders", "real or significant risk", "reasonable grounds to believe", "risk assessment", "serious crime related activities", "serious criminal offence". ...

Catchwords: Income tax (Cth) – Allowable deductions – Where taxpayer had received percentage of income derived from 18 gaming machines operated by authorised gaming operator under Gambling Regulation Act 2003 (Vic) at its hotel premises – Where Gambling Regulation Act amended to provide for gaming machine entitlements ("GMEs") to be allocated directly to gaming venue operators – Where taxpayer bid for and was allocated 18 GMEs permitting it to operate gaming machines at its premises for ten years – Where taxpayer paid purchase price by instalments – Whether purchase price was outgoing on revenue account deductible under s 8-1 of Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (Cth) ("1997 Act") – Whether purchase price was expenditure incurred to preserve (but not enhance) value of goodwill in relation to legal or equitable right with value to taxpayer solely attributable to effect on goodwill deductible under s 40-880 of 1997 Act. Words and phrases – "asset of enduring value", "barrier to entry", "blackhole expenditure", "capital account", "capital asset", "CGT asset", "CGT cost base", "CGT event", "gaming machine entitlements", "goodwill", "motive", "objective purpose", "once-and-for-all outgoing", "practical and business point of view", "purchase price funded out of revenue", "revenue account", "statutory rights", "structural solution". ...

Catchwords: Statutes – Construction – Where s 45(1)(a) of Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) provides that a person who "excises, infibulates or otherwise mutilates the whole or any part of the labia majora or labia minora or clitoris of another person" is liable to imprisonment – Where two respondents charged with having "mutilated the clitoris" of each of complainants – Where other respondent charged with assisting those respondents following commission of those offences – Where defence case that procedure performed on complainants merely ritualistic – Where trial judge directed jury that word "mutilate" in context of female genital mutilation means "to injure to any extent" – Where trial judge directed jury that "clitoris" includes "clitoral hood or prepuce" – Whether "otherwise mutilates" should be given ordinary meaning or take account of context of female genital mutilation – Whether "clitoris" includes clitoral hood or prepuce – Whether trial judge misdirected jury as to meaning of "mutilate" and "clitoris". Appeals – Where s 6(2) of Criminal Appeal Act 1912 (NSW) provides that if appeal against conviction allowed, subject to special provisions of Act, Court of Criminal Appeal "shall ...

Catchwords: Restitution – Unjust enrichment – Work and labour done – Where land owners and builder entered into contract to which Domestic Building Contracts Act 1995 (Vic) applied – Where contract provided for progress payments at completion of stages – Where owners requested, and builder carried out, variations to plans and specifications in contract without giving written notice as required by s 38 of Act – Where owners repudiated contract after builder raised invoice claiming for variations – Where contract terminated by builder's acceptance of owners' repudiation – Whether s 38 of Act applied to limit amount recoverable by builder for variations – Whether builder entitled to recover in restitution as alternative to claim in damages for breach of contract – Whether contract price operated as ceiling on amount recoverable by way of restitution. Words and phrases – "accrued rights", "alternative restitutionary remedy", "common counts", "completed stage", "contract price ceiling", "contractual incentives", "domestic building contract", "failure of basis", "failure of consideration", "limit on recovery", "measure of restitution", "notice", "primary and secondary obligations", "principle of legality", "protective provisions", "qualifying or vitiating factor", "quantum meruit", "quasi-contractual obligation", "repudiation", "restitution", "subjective devaluation", "unjust enrichment", "variations", "work and labour done". ...

Catchwords: Immigration – Refugees – Application for protection visa – Immigration Assessment Authority ("Authority") – Review by Authority under Pt 7AA of Migration Act 1958 (Cth) – Where decision by delegate of Minister for Immigration and Border Protection to refuse protection visa referred to Authority for review – Where Secretary of Department of Immigration and Border Protection gave Authority documents and information – Where Secretary notified Authority that s 473GB applied to documents and information – Where s 473GB(3) conferred discretions on Authority, upon notification, to have regard to matter in document or to information and to disclose matter in document or information to referred applicant – Where documents and information not disclosed to referred applicant during review – Where fact of notification not disclosed to referred applicant during review – Whether procedural fairness required Authority to disclose fact of notification to referred applicant. Administrative law – Judicial review – Jurisdictional error – Procedural fairness – Where Div 3 of Pt 7AA, s 473GA and s 473GB provided exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule in relation to reviews by Authority – Whether implied obligation of procedural fairness precluded. Words and phrases – "disclosure", "document or information", "exclusion of procedural fairness", "exhaustive statement", "fact of notification", "natural justice hearing rule", "notification". ...

Catchwords: Companies – Shares – Implied prohibition against financial assistance by company to acquire shares in company – Meaning of "financial assistance" – Where s 260A(1) of Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) provides that company may financially assist a person to acquire shares in the company only if giving the assistance does not materially prejudice the interests of the company or its shareholders, or the company's ability to pay its creditors – Where appellant companies' constitutions contained pre-emption clause which provided that, before a shareholder could transfer shares of a particular class, those shares must first be offered to existing shareholders of that class in proportion to the number of shares of that class already held by that shareholder – Where sole shareholder of one shareholder company entered into agreements for sale of shares – Where appellant companies claimed that agreements breached pre-emptive rights provisions – Where injunction sought under s 1324 of Corporations Act to restrain appellant companies from prosecuting proceedings in relation to pre‑emptive rights on basis that proceedings contravened the prohibition against financial assistance in s 260A(1) – Whether funding by company of legal proceedings directed at compelling one shareholder to offer shares to other shareholders is financial assistance – Whether the companies should be enjoined from continuing legal proceedings at their expense to vindicate alleged breach of pre-emptive rights. Words and phrases – "acquisition of shares", "creditors", "financial assistance", "implied prohibition against financial assistance", "injunction", "material prejudice", "power to enforce company constitution", "pre-emptive rights", "shareholders". ...

Catchwords: Criminal practice – Private prosecution – Authority to prosecute – Where private citizen sought to commence criminal proceeding for offence of crime against humanity contrary to s 268.11 of Criminal Code (Cth) – Where offence located within Div 268 of Criminal Code – Where s 268.121(1) provides that proceedings under Div 268 must not be commenced without Attorney-General's written consent – Where Attorney-General did not consent – Where s 268.121(2) of Criminal Code provides that offence against Div 268 "may only be prosecuted in the name of the Attorney-General" – Where s 13(a) of Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) provides that any person may "institute proceedings for the commitment for trial of any person in respect of any indictable offence against the law of the Commonwealth" unless contrary intention appears – Whether s 268.121(2) expresses contrary intention for purpose of s 13(a) – Whether s 268.121(2) precludes private prosecution of offence against Div 268. Words and phrases – "commencement of proceedings", "committal", "consent", "consent of the Attorney-General", "contrary intention", "crime against humanity", "in the name of", "indictable offence against the law of the Commonwealth", "private prosecution", "prosecuted in the name of the Attorney- General", "relator proceeding", "right to prosecute", "summary proceedings", "trial on indictment". ...

Catchwords: Constitutional law – State Parliament – Constitution – Ch III – Where plaintiff convicted of murder of police officer – Where plaintiff sentenced to imprisonment for life with non-parole period – Where plaintiff's non-parole period expired – Where s 74AB of Corrections Act 1986 (Vic) prevented making of parole order in respect of plaintiff unless Adult Parole Board satisfied plaintiff in imminent danger of dying or seriously incapacitated and does not have physical ability to harm any person, and does not pose risk to community – Where s 74AB identified plaintiff by name and applied only to plaintiff – Where plaintiff not in imminent danger of dying or seriously incapacitated – Where s 74AAA of Corrections Act imposed conditions for making parole order if person convicted of murder and victim police officer – Whether ss 74AB and 74AAA contrary to Ch III of Constitution and therefore invalid – Whether ss 74AB and 74AAA impermissibly legislatively resentenced plaintiff – Whether ss 74AB and 74AAA impose additional or separate punishment to that imposed by sentencing court – Whether s 74AB distinguishable from provision upheld in Knight v Victoria (2017) 261 CLR 306; [2017] HCA 29 – Whether Knight and Crump v New South Wales (2012) 247 CLR 1; [2012] HCA 20 should be reopened. Words and phrases – "additional or separate punishment", "judicial power", "legislative punishment", "legislatively resentenced", "life imprisonment", "minimum term", "more punitive or burdensome to liberty", "non-parole period", "opportunity to be considered for release on parole", "parole", "severity of the punishment", "substantive operation and practical effect". ...

Catchwords: Insurance law – Motor vehicles – Personal injury – Where appellant injured in motor vehicle collision – Where appellant gave evidence father driving vehicle at time of collision – Where appellant alleged injuries caused by negligence of father – Where appellant’s blood located on driver's airbag – Where expert evidence relating to possible source of blood – Where expert evidence relating to seatbelt and airbag design – Where trial judge concluded appellant driving vehicle – Where Court of Appeal dismissed appeal – Whether trial judge's findings glaringly improbable or contrary to compelling inferences. Appeal – Rehearing – Where trial judge drew inferences and made findings of fact based on lay and expert evidence – Where Court of Appeal found inferences wrong in material respects – Whether Court of Appeal erred in failing to conclude trial judge misused advantage as trial judge – Whether Court of Appeal failed to conduct "real review" of evidence given and trial judge's reasons for judgment. Words and phrases – "contrary to compelling inferences", "glaringly improbable", "real review", "trial judge's advantage". ...

Catchwords: Limitation of actions – Debts created by statute – Debts secured by charge – Where Council commenced proceeding against respondent for overdue rates and charges – Where overdue rates and charges secured by charge – Where respondent argued claim was an action to recover a sum recoverable by virtue of an enactment under s 10(1)(d) of Limitation of Actions Act 1974 (Qld) – Where Council argued claim was an action to recover a principal sum of money secured by a charge and subject to s 26(1) of the Act – Where proceeding falls within both ss 10(1)(d) and 26(1) – Whether s 26(1) applies to exclude operation of s 10(1)(d). Words and phrases – "Barnes v Glenton", "claim in rem", "limitation of actions", "overlap between limitation periods", "personal claim", "real claim", "sums secured by mortgage or charge", "what claims are within limitation statutes". ...

Catchwords: Practice and procedure – Costs – Legal practitioners – Barristers – Where self‑represented litigant may not obtain any recompense for value of his or her time spent in litigation – Where exception commonly referred to as "Chorley exception" exists for a self-represented litigant who is a solicitor – Where first respondent is a barrister – Where first respondent undertook legal work in litigation in which she was represented – Where first respondent incurred costs on her own behalf and for legal services provided by herself – Whether Chorley exception operates to benefit barristers – Whether Chorley exception recognised as part of common law of Australia. Words and phrases – "anomalous", "Chorley exception", "common law of Australia", "costs", "costs payable", "creature of statute", "employed solicitors", "equality before the law", "exception to the general rule", "exercise of professional skill", "incorporated legal practice", "indemnity", "judicial abolition", "professional legal services", "prospective overruling", "remuneration", "rule of practice", "rules committees", "self-represented litigants", "statutory power". ...

Catchwords: Privilege – Legal professional privilege – Where documents identified by plaintiffs as having been created by law practice for sole or dominant purpose of provision of legal advice to plaintiffs – Where privileged documents stolen from electronic file management system of law practice and disseminated – Where documents obtained by defendants – Where defendants refused to return documents to plaintiffs and provide undertaking not to refer to or rely upon documents – Where plaintiffs sought injunctive relief in equity's auxiliary jurisdiction solely on basis of legal professional privilege – Where plaintiffs did not seek injunctive relief on basis of confidentiality or other area of law – Where defendants demurred on basis that no cause of action disclosed – Whether legal professional privilege operates only as immunity or is also actionable legal right – Whether policy considerations justify creation of new actionable right in respect of documents subject to legal professional privilege. Words and phrases – "actionable legal right", "basis for relief", "breach of confidence", "cause of action", "common law right", "confidentiality", "development of the law", "immunity", "injunction", "legal professional privilege", "policy of the law", "public interest", "remedy". ...

Catchwords: Statutes – Construction – Statutory powers – Mutual recognition – Where s 17(1) of Mutual Recognition Act 1992 (Cth) provides that person registered in one State for occupation entitled to be registered in equivalent occupation in second State where person lodges written notice with local registration authority of second State – Where s 20(1) of Mutual Recognition Act provides that registration in first State sufficient ground of entitlement to registration in second State – Where s 20(2) of Mutual Recognition Act provides that local registration authority of second State "may" grant registration on that ground – Where s 17(2) of Mutual Recognition Act provides that mutual recognition principle subject to exception that it does not affect operation of laws that regulate manner of carrying on occupation in second State, provided laws not based on attainment or possession of some qualification or experience relating to fitness to carry on occupation – Where respondent registered as waterproofer in first State – Where respondent refused registration in second State for non-compliance with "good character" requirement in local Act – Whether local registration authority has discretion to refuse registration – Whether "good character" requirement is law based on "qualification" relating to fitness to carry on occupation. Words and phrases – "character requirement", "disciplinary action", "discretionary power", "entitlement to registration", "fitness to carry on an occupation", "good character", "local registration authority", "may", "mutual recognition principle", "mutual recognition scheme", "qualification or experience", "registration for an occupation", "residual discretion", "sufficient ground of entitlement to registration". ...

Catchwords: Constitutional law (Cth) – Implied freedom of communication on governmental and political matters – Where Australian Public Service ("APS") Code of Conduct ("Code") included requirement in s 13(11) of Public Service Act 1999 (Cth) that employees behave in way that upholds APS Values and integrity and good reputation of APS – Where APS Values in s 10(1) of that Act included that APS is apolitical, performing functions in impartial and professional manner – Where Agency Head empowered by s 15(1) of that Act to impose sanctions on employee found to have breached Code, including termination of employment – Where employee of government Department published tweets critical of Department, its employees, policies and administration, Government and Opposition immigration policies, and members of Parliament – Where employment with Commonwealth terminated for breach of Code – Where employee claimed compensation under Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988 (Cth) for "injury", defined to exclude injury suffered as result of reasonable administrative action taken in reasonable manner in respect of employee's employment – Whether ss 10(1), 13(11) and 15(1) of Public Service Act impose effective burden on implied freedom – Whether burden on implied freedom justified – Whether impugned provisions for legitimate purpose – Whether provisions suitable, necessary and adequate in balance. Words and phrases – "adequate in its balance", "anonymous", "apolitical", "APS Code of Conduct", "effective burden", "impartial", "implied freedom of political communication", "integrity", "legitimate purpose", "necessary", "public servants", "public service", "reasonably appropriate and adapted", "suitable", "system of representative and responsible government", "tweets", "unjustified burden". ...

Catchwords: Constitutional law (Cth) – Courts – Federal courts – Federal jurisdiction – Matter arising under Commonwealth law – Where Commonwealth law provides rules in respect of parentage of children born of artificial conception procedures – Where State law provides irrebuttable presumption that biological father of child conceived by fertilisation procedure is not father in specified circumstances – Whether s 79(1) of Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) operates to pick up and apply text of State law as Commonwealth law – Whether State law regulates exercise of jurisdiction – Whether Commonwealth law has "otherwise provided" within meaning of s 79(1) of Judiciary Act – Whether tests for contrariety under s 79(1) of Judiciary Act and s 109 of Constitution identical – Whether State law applies of its own force in federal jurisdiction. Family law – Parenting orders – Meaning of "parent" – Where Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) presumes best interests of child served by shared parental responsibility – Where s 60H of Family Law Act provides rules in respect of parentage of children born of artificial conception procedures – Where appellant provided semen to first respondent to conceive child with belief that he was fathering child – Where appellant had ongoing role in child's financial support, health, education and general welfare and enjoyed extremely close and secure attachment relationship with child – Where first respondent later in de facto relationship with second respondent – Where appellant found to be "parent" within ordinary meaning of word but not under s 60H – Whether s 60H exhaustive of persons who may qualify as "parent" of child born of artificial conception procedure – Whether "parent" used in Family Law Act according to ordinary meaning except as otherwise provided – Whether appellant is "parent" within ordinary meaning – Whether ordinary meaning of "parent" excludes "sperm donor" – Whether appellant is "sperm donor". Words and phrases – "artificial conception procedure", "complete upon its face", "federal courts", "federal jurisdiction", "implicit negative proposition", "inconsistency", "irrebuttable presumption", "jurisdiction", "matter", "ordinary meaning", "otherwise provided", "parent", "parentage", "parenting orders", "picked up and applied", "power", "presumptions", "regulates the exercise of jurisdiction", "sperm donor", "State jurisdiction", "State legislative power", "status". ...

Catchwords: Practice and procedure – High Court – Suppression and non-publication orders – Power to make – Where expert evidence and gender restricted evidence of senior males of Ngaliwurru and Nungali Peoples admitted in support of compensation claims in native title proceedings – Whether suppression or non-publication orders in respect of such evidence necessary to prevent prejudice to the proper administration of justice. Words and phrases – "administration of justice", "gender restricted knowledge", "suppression order". ...

Catchwords: Corporations – External administration – Receivers and other controllers of property – Priority debts – Where corporation carrying on business solely as trustee created circulating security interest over trust assets in favour of bank – Where receivers and managers appointed by bank realised trust assets and satisfied obligations to bank – Whether surplus proceeds required to be paid in accordance with Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), s 433 – Whether corporation's right of indemnity is property of the company "comprised in or subject to a circulating security interest" within meaning of s 433 – Whether trust assets themselves are such "property of the company" – Whether statutory order of priorities for payment of debts applicable to distribution of surplus proceeds from trust assets among trust creditors – Whether proceeds from exercise of insolvent corporate trustee's right of exoneration to be applied only in satisfaction of trust liabilities to which it relates. Trusts – Trustees – Right of indemnity – Whether trustee's right of indemnity confers beneficial interest in trust assets – Whether such interest is "property" within meaning of Corporations Act, s 9. Words and phrases – "beneficial interest", "circulating asset", "circulating security interest", "floating charge", "insolvent corporate trustee", "payment of creditors out of property", "power of exoneration", "PPSA security interest", "priority payments", "property", "property comprised in or subject to a circulating security interest", "property held by the bankrupt on trust", "property of the company", "right of exoneration", "right of indemnity", "taking possession or assuming control of property", "trust asset", "trust liabilities". ...

Catchwords: Trade practices – Consumer protection – Unconscionable conduct – Where s 12CB(1) of Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 (Cth) relevantly prohibited "unconscionable" conduct in trade or commerce in connection with supply or possible supply of financial services – Where respondent provided "book-up" credit to Anangu customers of general store – Where book-up credit allowed deferral of whole or part of payment for goods subject to respondent retaining customer's debit card and personal identification number – Where respondent used debit card to withdraw whole or nearly whole of wages or Centrelink payments shortly after credited to prevent customers having practical opportunity to access monies – Where respondent applied part of withdrawn funds to reduce customer's indebtedness and made remainder available for provision of future goods and services – Where respondent's record-keeping inadequate and often illegible – Where customers vulnerable due to remoteness, limitations on education, impoverishment and low levels of financial literacy – Where book-up system "tied" Anangu customers to general store – Where customers had understanding of basic elements of book-up system – Where withdrawals authorised by customers – Where customers generally supportive of book-up and respondent's business – Where book-up protected customers from cultural practices requiring sharing of resources with certain categories of kin – Where book-up ameliorated effects of "boom and bust" cycle of expenditure and allowed purchase of food between pay days – Whether respondent's conduct unconscionable within meaning of s 12CB(1) of Act. Words and phrases – "agency", "book-up", "credit", "cultural practices", "demand sharing", "dishonesty", "exploitation", "financial literacy", "humbugging", "inequality of bargaining power", "legitimate interests", "moral obloquy", "passive acceptance", "power imbalance", "special disadvantage", "standard of conscience", "system or pattern of conduct", "transparency or accountability", "unconscientious conduct", "unconscionable conduct", "undue influence", "unfair", "unjust", "unwritten law", "victimisation", "voluntary", "vulnerability". ...

Catchwords: Immigration – Unlawful non-citizens – Detention pending removal from Australia – Where s 189 of Migration Act 1958 (Cth) requires unlawful non‑citizen be detained – Where s 196 requires unlawful non-citizen detained under s 189 be kept in immigration detention – Where plaintiff an unlawful non‑citizen – Where plaintiff arrived in migration zone using false passport and personal details – Where plaintiff kept in immigration detention since arrival in migration zone – Where plaintiff previously used false personal details – Where plaintiff's identity and nationality not known – Whether ss 189 and 196 authorise plaintiff's detention – Whether ss 189 and 196 constitutionally valid in application to plaintiff. High Court – Original jurisdiction – Practice – Special case – Drawing of inferences – Where factual basis of questions of law depends on drawing inferences under r 27.08.5 of High Court Rules 2004 (Cth) – Where inferences concern likelihood of plaintiff's future removal from Australia – Where prospects of plaintiff's future removal depend on information provided by plaintiff and cooperation by plaintiff – Where plaintiff made false statements and failed to assist and cooperate – Where plaintiff gave inconsistent accounts of personal and family background – Where plaintiff seeks to take advantage of falsehoods and non-cooperation – Whether inferences can be drawn. Words and phrases – "habeas corpus", "identity", "immigration detention", "inferences", "onus of proof", "prospects of removal", "real prospect", "reasonably foreseeable", "special case", "unlawful non-citizen". ...

Catchwords: Administrative law (Cth) – Administrative Appeals Tribunal – Nature and scope of review – Where appellant's convictions spent under Pt VIIC of Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) – Where Div 3 of Pt VIIC of Crimes Act prohibited Australian Securities and Investments Commission ("ASIC") from taking into consideration spent convictions in deciding to make banning order – Where review of decision of ASIC by Administrative Appeals Tribunal – Where s 85ZZH(c) of Crimes Act provided that Div 3 of Pt VIIC does not apply to Commonwealth tribunal – Whether Administrative Appeals Tribunal entitled to take into consideration on review spent convictions which ASIC was prohibited from taking into consideration. Words and phrases – "banning order", "fit and proper person", "function of the original decision-maker", "review", "spent conviction", "stand in the shoes of the decision-maker". ...

Catchwords: Contract – Construction – Dispute resolution clause – Arbitration – Where arbitral clause in deeds provided for confidential arbitration in event of any dispute "under this deed" – Where deeds came into existence against background of claims and threats of litigation made publicly by one party to deeds against others – Where deeds contained releases, acknowledgments and covenants not to sue, and promises not to make further claims – Where deeds contained assurances they were entered into without undue influence or duress – Where appellants brought proceedings alleging breaches of equitable and contractual duties against other parties to deeds – Where appellants asserted they were not bound by deeds because their assent procured by misconduct of other parties to deeds ("validity claims") – Where respondents sought orders that matter be referred to arbitration and proceedings be dismissed or permanently stayed – Whether validity claims subject to arbitral clause. Arbitration – Parties – Where s 8(1) of Commercial Arbitration Act 2010 (NSW) ("NSW Act") provided that court before which action is brought in matter which is subject of arbitration agreement must in certain circumstances refer parties to arbitration – Where s 2(1) of NSW Act defined "party" to include any person claiming "through or under" party to arbitration agreement – Where trustees and beneficiaries party to arbitration agreement – Where beneficiaries alleged breaches of trust against trustees and knowing receipt against third party companies as assignees of trust property – Where third party companies asserted beneficial entitlement of trustees to property as essential element of defence – Where third party companies sought order that claims against them be referred to arbitration pursuant to s 8(1) of NSW Act – Whether third party companies claiming "through or under" party to arbitration agreement. Words and phrases – "arbitral clause", "arbitration agreement", "claiming through or under a party", "confidential processes of dispute resolution", "context and purpose of deed", "dispute under this deed", "party", "privity of contract". ...

Catchwords: Constitutional law (Cth) – Powers of Commonwealth Parliament – Federal elections – Severance – Where s 51(xxxvi) in application to ss 10 and 31 of Constitution conferred legislative power on Commonwealth Parliament with respect to federal elections – Where Commonwealth Parliament enacted s 302CA within Div 3A of Pt XX of Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (Cth) – Where s 302CA relevantly conferred authority on person to make, and on "political entity" to receive and retain, gift not prohibited by Div 3A provided that gift or part of it was "required to be, or may be" used for certain purposes relating to federal elections – Where s 302CA provided for displacement of such authority in circumstances including where State or Territory electoral law required gift or part of it to be kept or identified separately to be used only for purpose of State, Territory or local government election – Whether Commonwealth legislative power with respect to federal elections exclusive or concurrent – Whether s 302CA within scope of Commonwealth legislative power with respect to federal elections – Whether possible to sever s 302CA to preserve part of its operation within scope of Commonwealth legislative power. Constitutional law (Cth) – Inconsistency between Commonwealth and State laws – Gifts to political parties – Where Queensland Parliament passed amendments to Electoral Act 1992 (Qld) and Local Government Electoral Act 2011 (Qld) prohibiting property developers from making gifts to political parties that endorse and promote candidates for election to Legislative Assembly and local government councils – Whether Queensland amendments inconsistent with s 302CA or framework of Pt XX of Commonwealth Electoral Act – Whether s 302CA invalid for infringing principle in University of Wollongong v Metwally (1984) 158 CLR 447; [1984] HCA 74. Constitutional law (Cth) – Implied freedom of communication about governmental and political matters – Where amendments to Electoral Act 1992 (Qld) substantially replicated provisions in Election Funding, Expenditure and Disclosures Act 1981 (NSW) upheld in McCloy v New South Wales (2015) 257 CLR 178; [2015] HCA 34 – Whether amendments invalid for infringing implied freedom. Constitutional law (Cth) – Relationship between Commonwealth and States – Doctrine of inter-governmental immunities – Whether implication expounded in Melbourne Corporation v The Commonwealth (1947) 74 CLR 31; [1947] HCA 26 operates reciprocally to protect States and Commonwealth from impermissible interference by law of one polity with operations of government in another – Whether s 302CA invalid for contravening Melbourne Corporation principle – Whether Queensland amendments invalid for contravening Melbourne Corporation principle. Words and phrases – "bare attempt to limit or exclude State power", "concurrent power", "electoral expenditure", "electoral matter", "exclusive power", "federal elections", "federalism", "immunity from State laws", "incidental", "inconsistency", "inter-governmental immunities", "political entity", "political party", "required to be, or may be, used for the purposes of incurring electoral expenditure, or creating or communicating electoral matter", "severance", "State elections", "structural implication", "sufficient connection". ...

Catchwords: Aviation – Carriage of passengers by air – Accident – Carrier's liability – Where respondent engaged by appellant to carry out survey using helicopter – Where passenger aboard helicopter killed in crash – Where Pt IV of Civil Aviation (Carriers' Liability) Act 1959 (Cth) applied – Where s 28 provided that carrier liable for damage sustained by reason of death of passenger – Where s 35(2) substituted liability under s 28 for any civil liability of carrier under any other law in respect of death of passenger – Where s 34 imposes time limit on availability of right of action created by s 28 – Where widow, daughter and son of passenger brought claims in tort against appellant and respondent for damages for negligently inflicted psychiatric harm resulting from death of passenger – Where claims brought outside time limit prescribed by s 34 – Whether claims precluded by Act. Words and phrases – "any civil liability of the carrier under any other law", "by reason of the death of the passenger", "claim", "damage sustained", "Hague Protocol", "in respect of the death of the passenger", "Montreal Protocol No 4", "negligently inflicted psychiatric harm", "tort", "Warsaw Convention". ...

Catchwords: Aboriginals – Native title rights – Extinguishment of rights – Where s 47B of Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) provides that any historic extinguishment of native title rights and interests is to be "disregarded" for purposes of claim for determination of native title rights and interests over vacant Crown land – Where s 47B(1)(b)(i) provides that provision does not apply if relevant area is covered by "lease" – Where s 242(2) relevantly provides that "[i]n the case only of references to a mining lease, the expression lease also includes a licence ...